Private equity, venture capital, stock exchange listing: all are methods of raising equity finance. This course looks at the processes used and the markets available across the world for raising such finance, as well as looking into the reasons why some companies choose cross-listing on stock exchanges. By the end of this course you will able to understand private equity and the role of venture capital companies in providing this, understand why and how public equity issues can be undertaken, look at the reasons for cross-listing on stock exchanges, and examine why a company might de-list from an exchange and return to private ownership.

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What to expect from this course
Searching for an equity definition is understandable in today’s world, especially when the word ‘equity’ can have so many different meanings when applied to different situations.
Both public and private incorporated companies can issue shares in order to finance their operations.
For many companies – particularly in Europe and Asia – private equity together with retained earnings have been a sufficient source of capitalisation, allowing these companies to avoid listing on a stock exchange.
For many companies a point may be reached, particularly if the company has grown significantly in size and has aspirations for further expansion, to seek equity finance through an initial public offering of shares (IPO).
Case study
Case study
The issuance of additional shares is called a seasoned or secondary equity offering (SEO)
For many companies, particularly MNCs, there are attractions in having a share listing on more than one stock exchange. The last decade has witnessed an increase in such cross-listings globally.
Once its shares have been issued, a company has the option to buy back shares.
Case study
What next

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